Questions of physical geography and engineering engrossed him as much as ever.
The military engineering college for the Belgian army is here, and not far from Mons are the battle-fields of Malplaquet (1709) and Jemappes (1792).
Many improvements and extra protective works were carried out after 1816, and it was estimated that the total cost of this great engineering undertaking from 1807 to 1902 amounted to about X200,000, the date for the completion of the work being 1911.
The state university of Colorado, established at Boulder by an act of 1861, was opened in 1877; it includes a college of liberal arts, school of medicine (1883), school of law (1892), college of engineering (1893), graduate school, college of commerce (1906), college of education (1908), and a summer school (1904), and has a library of about 42,000 volumes.
The school of practical artillery and engineering was transferred to Fontainebleau from Metz by a decree of 1871, and now occupies the part of the palace surrounding the cour des offices.
He came to the United States with his father in 1846; graduated at Harvard in 1855, subsequently studying engineering and chemistry, and taking the degree of bachelor of science at the Lawrence scientific school of the same institution in 1857; and in 1859 became an assistant in the United States Coast Survey.
All the great iron foundries and engineering works are situated in the Central Plain or Lowlands, in close proximity to the shipbuilding yards and coalfields, especially in the lower and part of the middle wards of Lanarkshire, in certain districts of Ayrshire and Renfrewshire, at and near Dumbarton, in south Stirlingshire and in some parts of East and Mid Lothian and Fife.
Williams, The Diamond Mines of South Africa (New York, 1902); Periodical Publications - A nnales des mines de Belgique (Brussels, quarterly); Australian Mining Standard (Melbourne, Sydney and Brisbane, weekly); Engineering and Mining Journal (New York, weekly); Gliickauf (Essen, weekly); Mines and Quarries; General Report and Statistics (London, annually); with details from official reports of colonial and foreign mining departments; Mines and Minerals (monthly, Scranton, Pennsylvania); The Mineral Industry (New York, annually); Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers (New York); The Mining and Scientific Press (weekly, San Francisco); Transactions of the Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (London); Transactions of the Institution of Mining Engineers (Newcastle-on-Tyne).
The great engineering difficulties in building a railway along the Amur induced the Russian government to obtain from China permission to build a railway through Manchuria, but the project for a railway from Khabarovsk to Stryetensk received imperial sanction in the summer of 1906.
Thus in twenty years from the invention of the Gramme dynamo, electrical engineering had developed from small beginnings into a vast industry.