The term came into prominence in 1884-1885 in connexion with the scandals arising over the kidnapping of South Sea islanders for enforced labour on the sugar plantations of north Queensland.
Forced to fly to France, he there, at Lyons, in 1245, convened a council, which enforced his condemnation of the emperor.
The Roman Catholic religion was enforced at the time of the conquest, but a large percentage of the natives may still be considered semi-pagan, the gods of their ancestors being worshipped in secret, and the forms and tenets of the dominant faith, which they but faintly comprehend, being largely adulterated with superstitions and practices of pagan origin.
He had annihilated the petty kings of the South, had crushed the aristocracy, enforced the acceptance of Christianity throughout the kingdom, asserted his suzerainty in the Orkney Islands, had humbled the king of Sweden and married his daughter in his despite, and had conducted a successful raid on Denmark.
On similar grounds Christianity, as opposed to the Mazdaism enforced officially by the Sassanids, became predominant in Armenia.
C. 93) a gross rent charge can be substituted for a commutation of tithes on common rights at a fixed sum per head; a gross rent charge made payable in respect of the tithes of a gated or stinted pasture rated to the relief of the poor may be apportioned thereupon and enforced in the method prescribed by the other Tithe Acts; a rent charge on commons may be commuted for part of the land or redeemed, if the landowners and persons liable for tithe so agree; and upon enclosure, a rate per head may be converted into a rent charge on the lands allotted.
The sentence of the court Christian had in all other cases to be enforced by the secular arm.
From these disasters the country never recovered, and the last traces of Western civilization disappeared with the enforced use of the Turkish language and the wholesale conversions to Islam under the earliest Osmanli sultans.
Pornbal's arrangements extended also to the interior of the country, where he extinguished at once the now indefinite and oppressive claims of the original donatories of the captaincies, and strengthened and enforced the regulations of the mining districts.
The chief objection to enforced labour has been the difficulty in ensuring this; but the convict nowadays eagerly tries his best, because only thus can he win privileges while in prison and an earlier release from it.