The South African Encephalartos frequently produces several branches.
Short and reticulately-pitted tracheal cells, similar to tracheids, often occur in the circummedullary region of cycadean stems. In an old stem of Cycas, Encephalartos or Macrozamia the secondary wood consists of several rather unevenly concentric zones, while in some other genera it forms a continuous mass as in conifers and normal dicotyledons.
Conifers are scantily represented by Callitris and Podocarpus, which is common to all three sub-regions; and Cycads by the endemic Encephalartos and Stangeria.
Cases have been recorded (by Thiselton-Dyer in Encephalartos and by Wieland in Zamia) in which the short carpellary cone-scales exhibit a foliaceous form.