He begins as an empiricist or realist, with given matter-of-fact; but from time to time (e.g.
Dismissing his earlier intuitionalism, in order, like Butler, to conciliate an empiricist age, M.
The design argument is available for the slightly bolder philosophy of intuitionalism as well as for empiricist theism.
In England, empiricist thought found a prophet in Bacon.
When we recollect the empiricist starting-point of science, it is curious to observe with what vehemence the average man of science now rejects free will.
So Avenarius (q.v.) was no materialist, but only an empiricist anxious to reclaim man's natural view of the world from philosophic incrustations; yet when his Empiriokriticismus ends in nothing but environment, nervous system, and statements dependent on them, without soul, though within experience, he comes near to materialism, as Wundt has remarked.
This is a form of the cosmological argument, and ought to go with an intuitionalist not an empiricist doctrine of causality.
What the modern empiricist needs is a rational bond uniting the individual with the community or with the aggregate of individuals - a rational principle distinguishing high pleasures from low, sanctioning benevolence, and giving authority to moral generalizations drawn from conditions that are past and done with.
This reveals the empiricist temper, and points to an attempted empiricist solution of great problems. Butler holds that more ambitious philosophies are valid, but he shrinks from their use.
Difficulty may be found in carrying out this empiricist programme; but at the outset no one dreams of failure.