The dominions of the emir of Sokoto have suffered some diminutions by reason of British agreements with France relating to the common frontier of the two European powers in the western Sudan.
In 1868 the Russians entered Samarkand (May 14), and the emir was constrained to submit to the terms of the conqueror, becoming henceforward only a Russian puppet.
Their example was followed by the Kizil Ahmedii Emir Shems-ed-din, whose family was afterwards known as the house of Isfendiar in Kastamuni.
Tavernier states that it was the famous stone given to Shah Jahan by the emir Jumla.
Another emir was installed in his place and in the whole double province of Sokoto-Gando prosperity has been general.
The emir is not allowed to maintain a standing army, and the city of Kano is the headquarters of the British garrison.
The emir fled, without fighting, to Kano.
Among these are Le Diwdn de Ndbiqa Dhobyani; Le Livre de Sibawaihi (2 vols., Paris, 1881-1889); Chrestomathie elementaire de l'arabe litteral (in collaboration with Spiro, 1885; 2nd ed., 1892); Ousdma ibn Mounkidh, un emir syrien (1889); Ousdma ibn Mounkidh, preface du livre du bdton (with trans., 1887); Al-Fdkhri (1895); Oumdra du Gemen (1897), a catalogue of Arabic MSS.
The emir took the oath of allegiance to the sovereign of Great Britain.
The emir of Bokhara is an autocratic ruler, his power being limited only by the traditional custom (sheriat) of the Mussulmans.