For Diatomic Or Compound Gases Clerk Maxwell Supposed That The Molecule Would Also Possess Energy Of Rotation, And Endeavoured To Prove That In This Case The Energy Would Be Equally Divided Between The Six Degrees Of Freedom, Three Of Translation And Three Of Rotation, If The Molecule Were Regarded As A Rigid Body Incapable Of Vibration Energy.
In 1855, reviewing the various substances that had been obtained from glycerin, he reached the conclusion that glycerin is a body of alcoholic nature formed on the type of three molecules of water, as common alcohol is on that of one, and was thus led (1856) to the discovery of the glycols or diatomic alcohols, bodies similarly related to the double water type.
If two monatomic molecules, having energy of translation only, equivalent to 3 degrees of freedom, combined to form a diatomic molecule with 5 degrees of freedom, the energy lost would.
But that it may be given by the ordinary diatomic molecule is exemplified by oxygen, which gives in thick layers by absorption one of the typical sets of bands which were used by Deslandres and others to investigate the laws of distribution of frequencies.
For A Diatomic Gas, The Molecular Heat Would Be Nearly Five Calories, Or The Atomic Heat Of A Gas In The Diatomic State Would Be 2.5.
Hence it may be inferred that this value is typical for diatomic molecules.
Boltzmann Suggested That A Diatomic Molecule Regarded As A Rigid Dumb Bell Or Figure Of Rotation, Might Have Only Five Effective Degrees Of Freedom, Since The Energy Of Rotation About The Axis Of Symmetry Could Not Be Altered By Collisions Between The Molecules.
An early step accomplished by Ostwald in this direction is to define ozone in its relation to oxygen, considering the former as differing from the latter by an excess of energy, measurable as heat of transformation, instead of defining the difference as diatomic molecules in oxygen, and triatomic in ozone.
Oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen and carbon monoxide have the value 1.4; these gases have diatomic molecules, a fact capable of demonstration by other means.