The Public Debt Administration plays so considerable a part in the finances of the Ottoman Empire, and its history is of such importance that a special section of this article will be devoted to it below.
At the close of 1905 the area devoted to tillage was 9,365,000 acres, the area utilized for the production of breadstuffs being 6,270,000 acres or over two-thirds of the whole extent of cultivation.
Whole volumes might be devoted to the magnificent works in bronze produced by the Florentine artists of this century, works such as the baptistery gates by Ghiberti, the statues of Verrocchio, Donatello and many others, the bronze screen in Prato cathedral by Simone, brother of Donatello, in 1444-1461, and the screen and bronze ornaments of the tomb of Piero and Giovanni dei Medici in San Lorenzo, Florence, by Verrocchio, in 1472.
This interval was diligently devoted to the pursuit of classical and historical studies, to preparing himself for ordination, and to searching investigations, under the stimulus of continual discussion with a band of talented and congenial associates, of the profoundest questions in theology, ecclesiastical polity and social philosophy.
Shortly afterwards, however, he retired both from parliament and from public life, professing his disgust at the party intrigues of politics, and devoted himself to conducting his newspaper, the Newcastle Daily Chronicle, and to his private business as a mine-owner.
It was a subsidiary of one or more of Mr. Cooms' international holdings and would be devoted to analyzing a myriad of production numbers effecting economies from countries around the world.
Other periodicals which appeared in the 18th century were Mailer's Mercurio (1738); the Diario noticioso (1758-1781); El Pensador (1762-1767) of Joseph Clavijo y Fajardo; El Belianis literario (1765), satirical in character; the Semanario erudito (1778-1791), a clumsy collection of documents; El Correo literario de la Europa (1781-1782); El Censor (1781); the valuable Memorial literario (1784-1808); El Correo literario (1786-1791), devoted to literature and science; and the special organs El Correo mercantil (1792-1798) and El Semanario de agricultura (1797-1805).
Under it the state bought liquors, graded them in accordance with a chemical analysis, and sold them to consumers in packages of not less than one half-pint; the dispensaries were open from sunrise to sunset, no sales were made to minors or drunkards, and no liquor was drunk on the premises; there was a state dispensary commissioner and a state board of control; and the profits were divided between the state, the counties and the municipalities, the share of the state being devoted to educational purposes.
In some cases they ceased to farm their own land and let it out on lease often together with the stock upon it; or else they abandoned arable culture, laid down their demesnes to pasture, enclosed the waste lands and devoted themselves to sheep-farming.
He voted consistently on the Radical side, but his chief energies were devoted to promoting the cause of Italian unity.