Neither the deterrent nor the reformatory theories of punishment (q.v.) necessarily depend upon or carry with them a belief in the freedom of the will.
The increasing lethal capability of weapons does not seem to have been a deterrent to war in the past.
Besides the making of boxes and barrels and other articles necessarily Involved in its sugar and tobacco trade, Havana also, to some extent, builds carriages and small ships, and manufactures iron and machinery; but the weight of taxation during the Spanish period was always a heavy deterrent on the development of any business requiring great capital.
It was feared that the removal of this powerful deterrent would adversely affect discipline, but on the contrary, the yearly average of prison offences has diminished from 147 to 131 per thousand prisoners, and it has been felt by the authorities that the limitation was salutary and wise.
Imprisonment was not sufficiently deterrent to the habitual criminal class, and small attention was paid to the reclamation of less hardened offenders.
This is a deterrent to war and a force for peace because it increases understanding, empathy, and mutual self-interest.
While if the deterrent and reformatory theories alone provide a rational end for punishment to aim at then the libertarian hypothesis pushed to its extreme conclusion must make all punishments equally useless.
On the contrary, a belief that conduct necessarily results upon the presence of certain motives, and that upon the application of certain incentives, whether of pain or pleasure, upon the presence of certain stimuli whether in the shape of rewards or punishments, actions of a certain character will necessarily ensue, would seem to vindicate the rationality of ordinary penal legislation, if its aim be deterrent or reformatory, to a far greater extent than is possible upon the libertarian hypothesis.
This has to be a serious deterrent to Japan (as an example).
The ruins of Sardis, so far as they are now visible, are, chiefly of the Roman time; but though few ancient sites offered better hope of results, the necessity for heavy initial expenditure was a deterrent (e.g.