The mineral hydrocarbons found in nature or obtained by destructive distillation do not come within the range of this article (see Naphtha, Paraffin, Petroleum), which is restricted to the following two large groups of bodies, formed naturally within the vegetable and animal organisms, viz.
Gas carbon is produced by the destructive distillation of coal in the manufacture of illuminating gas (see GAS: Manufacture), being probably formed by the decomposition of gaseous hydrocarbons.
Particulars of the shales which yield oil on destructive distillation are given in the article on paraffin.
The second liquid product of the destructive distillation of coal is the ammoniacal or gas liquor, which consists of water containing ammonia salts in solution, partly condensed from the hot gas, and partly added to wash the gas in the scrubbers.
Coal then meant the carbonaceous residue obtained in the destructive distillation of wood, or what is known as charcoal, and the name collier was applied indifferently to both coal-miners and charcoal-burners.
P This term is founded on a misapprehension of the nature of the occurrence, since, although the softening takes place at a low temperature, still it marks the point at which destructive distillation commences, and hydrocarbons both of a solid and gaseous character are formed.
The gas which is obtained by the destructive distillation of coal, and which we employ as our chief illuminant, is not a definite com pound, but a mechanical mixture of several gases, some Gaseous .
It is also produced during the putrefaction of organic substances containing sulphur and is found among the products obtained in the destructive distillation of coal.
ANILINE, PHENYLAMINE, Or Aminobenzene, (C 6 H 5 Nh 2), an organic base first obtained from the destructive distillation of indigo in 1826 by O.
METHYL ALCOHOL (CH 2 OH), the simplest aliphatic alcohol; an impure form is known in commerce as wood-spirit, being produced in the destructive distillation of wood.