Gradually the podestas became more despotic and more corrupt, and sometimes a special official was appointed to hear complaints against them; in the 13th century in Florence and some other cities a capitano del popolo was chosen to look after the interests of the lower classes.
Honest and moderate, protecting the middle classes against exactions of the nobles, he exercised a happy influence upon the south, in spite of his naturally despotic character and his continual and pressing need of money.
But their colonies were democracies, disunited because each was pursuing its own special interests, while the French were united under despotic leadership. Frontenac attacked the Iroquois mercilessly in 1696 and forced these proud savages to sue for peace.
One of the freest states in the world, they encouraged a despotic misrule in which falsely-called free citizens were enslaved.
Italy not only gave him a taste for art and letters, but furnished him with an arsenal of despotic maxims. Yet his true masters were the jurists of the southern universities, passionately addicted to centralization and autocracy, men like Duprat and Poyet, who revived the persistent tradition of Philip the Fairs legists.
These various movements proved in the first place that the masses were by no means ripe for revolution, and that the idea of unity, although now advocated by a few revolutionary leaders, was far from being generally accepted even by the Liberals; and, secondly, that, in spite of the indifference of the masses, the despotic governments were unable to hold their own without the assistance of foreign bayonets.
It was only crushed by forces generated in the nation that produced it, by the Inquisition and by despotic Catholic absolutism.
The Prussian people were keenly irritated by the cordial relations between their court and the most despotic power in Europe.
He was succeeded by the principal khalif a, Abdullah ci Taaisha, a Baggara Arab, who for the next thirteen years ruled the Sudan with despotic power.
That Wellington actively assisted despotic governments against the constitutional movements of the time is not true.