Provision is made for truant, dependent, neglected and delinquent children.
To maintain the character of French goods in foreign markets, as well as to afford a guarantee to the home consumer, the quality and measure of each article were fixed by law, breach of the regulations being punished by public exposure of the delinquent and destruction of the goods, and, on the third offence, by the pillory.
There are also county courts, consisting of one judge who serves for four years; in some counties probate courts have been established, and in counties of more than 500,000 population juvenile courts for the trial and care of delinquent children are provided for.
For a long time Hainan was the refuge of the turbulent classes of China and the place of deportation for delinquent officials.
The law recognized that a child should not be treated like a mature malefactor, and provided that there should be no criminal procedure, that the child should not be imprisoned or prosecuted, that his interests should be protected by a probation officer, that he should be discharged unless found dependent, delinquent or truant, and in such case that he should be turned over to the care of an approved individual or charitable society.
The mayor holds office for three years, has the powers and jurisdiction of a justice of the peace, appoints the heads of departments (public safety, public works, collector of delinquent taxes, assessors, city treasurer, law, charities and correction, and sinking fund commission), and may remove any of the officers he has appointed, by a written order, showing cause, to the select council.
The Democratic-Republicans controlled the politics of the state without any serious opposition until the conflict in 1820-1826, arising from the demands for a more adequate system of currency and other measures for the relief of delinquent debtors divided the state into what were known as the relief and anti-relief parties.
A Juvenile Court and a Board of Children's Guardians have extensive jurisdiction over dependent and delinquent children, and a general supervision of all charities and corrections is vested in a Board of Charities, consisting of five members appointed by the president of the United States.