Formerly it was fortified, but after the change in the defensive system of Belgium in 1858 the fortress was dismantled and its ramparts superseded by boulevards.
On purely defensive lines, early apologists rebut charges of cannibalism and sexual promiscuity; the Christians had to meet in secret, and the gossip of a rotten age drew malignant conclusions.
The fyrd was gradually superseded by the gathering of the thegns and their retainers, but it was occasionally called out for defensive purposes even after the Norman Conquest.
This proposal broke on the refusal of the peror Francis Joseph to cede Austrian territory except as the lIt of a struggle; and Napoleon, won over by Biswarck at famous interview at Biarritz, once more took.up the ides of Prusso-Italian offensive and defensive alliance.
A watchful neutrality, not venturing much beyond defensive alliances and commercial treaties with the maritime powers, was therefore Sweden's safest policy, and this the older Caps had always followed out.
Rough Castle, near Falkirk, is very much smaller; it is remarkable for the astonishing strength of its turf-built and earthen ramparts and ravelins, and for a remarkable series of defensive pits, reminiscent of Caesar's lilia at Alesia, plainly intended to break an enemy's charge, and either provided with stakes to impale the assailant or covered over with hurdles or the like to deceive him.
Its defensive works are extensive, and consist of strong modern forts crowning the hills encircling the town on the west, and of the citadel of Ehrenbreitstein on the opposite bank of the Rhine.
The peace of Varala saved Sweden from any such humiliating concession, and in October 1791 Gustavus took the bold but by no means imprudent step of concluding an eight years' defensive alliance with the empress, who thereby bound herself to pay her new ally annual subsidies amounting to 300,000 roubles.
He maintained himself stubbornly in defensive campaigns against the Latin emperor Henry, defeated his rival Alexius Comnenus of Trebizond, and carried out a successful counter-attack upon Gayath-ed-din, the sultan of Koniah, who had been instigated to war by the deposed Alexius III.
The defensive force - the Northern Nigeria Regiment of the West African Frontier Force - is constituted by law, and the proclamation contains a military code based on the Army Act with modifications necessary in local circumstances.