The chief weaknesses in the colonial administration of the territory, particularly prior to 1900 - but only to a slightly less extent since - have been decentralization and a lax civil service.
The existing fragments tell us little as to the decentralization of the functions of government, but from the Lex Rubria, which applies to the Transpadane districts enfranchised by Caesar (it must be remembered that Cisalpine Gaul remained nominally a province until 42 B.C.) we gather that considerable powers of independent jurisdiction were reserved to the municipal magistrates.
They drew support from the Parisian democracy, and considered the decentralization of the Girondins as endangering Frances unity, circumstances demanding a strong and highly concentrated government; they opposed a republic on the model of that of Rome to the Polish republic of the Gironde.
But such unions were followed again and again by decentralization and disruption.
Fine A rts.Perhaps the chief advantage which Germany has derived from the survival of separate territorial sovereignties within the empire has been the decentralization of culture.
This law was followed by further measures tending to decentralization and the protection of the native races.
The system of rattachement was in great part abandoned, and decentralization was obtained by augmenting the powers of the governor-general, and by granting to Algeria legal personality and a special budget (see above, Central Government).
He remained in power during five years of unbroken peace (1851-1856), and carried many useful reforms. The most important of these was the so-called Additional Act of the 5th of July 1852, which amended the charter of 1826 by providing for the direct election of deputies, the decentralization of the executive, the creation of representative municipal councils, and the abolition of capital punishment for political offences.
He was elected a member of the French Academy in 1899, his most notable works being Orateurs et hommes d'etat (1888), Figures de femmes (1889), La Decentralization (1895), La Question sociale (1898).
Under the first constitution the decentralization of administration, which began early in the colonial era, continued without interruption, and under the second it was checked by a few measures only.