Exactions, debasement of the currency and extortionate taxation were ruinous palliatives, and insufficient to supply a treasury which the revenue from crown lands and various rights taken from the nobles could not fill even in times of peace.
Systematic debasement of the coinage was practised both in India, where the monetary system was extremely complex, 2 and in Portugal; and owing to the bullionist policy adopted by Portuguese financiers little permanent benefit accrued to the mother country from its immense trade.
The unity of the political world and the debasement of its moral life.
In the scarcity of money Charles had recourse to the debasement of the coinage, which suffered no less than twenty-two variations in the two years before the treaty of Bretigny.
Tc such a depth of debasement had the ceramic art fallen in Owari, that before the happy renaissance of the past ten years, Nagoya discredited itself by employing porcelain as a base for cloisonn enamelling.
In order to cover this recourse was had as usual, not to remedies, but to palliatives worse than the evil: heavy usurious loans, debasement of the coinage, creation of stocks that were perpetually being converted, and ridiculous charges which the bourgeois, sickened with officialdom, would endure no longer.
He joined a Methodist society at Burslem, but business taking him at the close of 1800 to the colliery district of Harrisehead and Kidsgrove, he was so impressed by the prevailing ignorance and debasement that he began a religious revival of the district.
By his heavy imposts and the debasement of the coinage he forfeited his popularity with the rest of the community, and gave rise to riots.
He therefore soon reverted to the old and worse measures, including the debasement of coinage, and put an extreme tensioU on all the springs of the financial system.