This principle of construction has since been followed in the construction of the Boston subway, of the Chemin de Fer Metropolitain in Paris, and of the New York underground railway.
Col d'Arsine (La Grave to Monestier), bridle path Col des Pres Nouveaux (Le Freney to St Jean d'Arves), bridle path 7,523 Col des Sept Laux (Allevard to Bourg d'Oisans), bridle path 7,166 Col du Lautaret (Briancon to Bourg d'Oisans), carriage road 6,808 Col de la Croix de Fer (Bourg d'Oisans to St Jean d'Arves), carriage road..
Of timber trees the bois gayac has disappeared, but bois de fer (Stadtmannia sideroxylon) and bois de natte (Maba sechellarum) still flourish on Silhouette Island.
Young, Corps de droit ottoman (7 vols., Oxford, 1905-1906);1906); Pech, Manuel des societes anonymes fonctionnant en Turquie (Paris, 1906); Alexis Bey, Statistique des principaux resultats des chemins de fer de l'empire ottoman (Constantinople, 1909).
This afterwards declined, but it is now one of the principal points of communication between England and France, the railway company maintaining a daily service of fast steamers to Dieppe in connexion with the Chemin de fer de 1'Ouest.
Of these companies the Union miniere du Haut Katanga had for object the development of the mineral wealth of the district named, while the Chemin de fer du Bas Congo undertook to build a railway from Leopoldville to Katanga.
Holland, Hungary and Switzerland were all early in the field; and Belgium has succeeded, through the instrumentality of the semi-official Societe Nationale de Chemins de Fer Vicinaux, started in 1885, in developing one of the most complete systems of rural railway transport in the world.
The Bibans or Portes de fer (Iron Gates) consist of two defiles with stupendous walls of rock, which by erosion have assumed the most fantastic shapes.
Besides the main railways there are numerous light railways (chemins de fer vicinaux), of a total length approaching 2500 m.
The Strategion, devoted to the military exercises of the brave little town, stood close to Sirkedji Iskelessi, and two artificial harbours, the Portus Prosforianus and the Neorion, indented the shore of the Golden Horn, respectively in front of the ground now occupied by the station of the Chemins de Fer Orientaux and the Stamboul custom-house.