Russiaor rather her, tsar resolved on.the occupation of the Danubian principalities; the British ministrythough the quarrel did not directly concern Great Britainsent a fleet to the Dardanelles and placed it under Lord Stratfords orders.
But after a sanguinary contest the assailants met with repulse, and from that date onwards no serious offensive operation was attempted by the Allies in the Dardanelles campaign.
The presence of the British fleet, however, at the Dardanelles suggested to him the possibility of settling another long-standing controversy.
The Genoese won a victory in the gulf of Alexandretta (1294); but on the other hand the Venetians under Ruggiero Morosini forced the Dardanelles and sacked the Genoese quarter of Galata.
Some British vessels carried out a brief bombardment of the Ottoman batteries at the mouth of the Dardanelles on Nov.
On the 10th of July the four signatory powers of the convention of London signed a protocol recording the closure of the incident (protocole de cloture), and on the 13th France united with them in signing another protocol (protocole des detroits) by which the powers engaged to respect the principle proclaimed by the sultan as to the closing of the Dardanelles to foreign warships.
The line of communication with Asia was secured against the Greek fleet by the Dardanelles fortifications, which enabled Rodosto to be used as an advanced base.
Lord Palmerston determined to support the Porte in its refusal to give up these exiles, and actually sent the British fleet to the Dardanelles with this object.
This Turkish artillery was bearing upon Helles not merely from the uplands facing the Allies' front line, but also from the Asiatic side of the Dardanelles on the Allies' flank.
Foes advancing through Asia Minor would have their march arrested, and their blows kept beyond striking distance, by the moat which the waters of the Bosporus, the Sea of Marmora and the Dardanelles combine to form.