Lusitanica, Webb, by Cynips (Diplolepis, Latr.) tinctoria, L., or C. gallae tinctoriae Oliv.
The small, smooth, seed-shaped gall of the American Cynips seminator, Harris, according to W.
The large purplish Mecca or Bussorah galls, 14 produced on a species of oak by Cynips insana, Westw., have been regarded by many writers as the Dead Sea fruit, mad-apples (mala insana), or apples of Sodom (poma sodomitica), alluded to by Josephus and others, which, however, are stated by E.
Callimome regius, the larva of which preys on the larvae of both Cynips glutinosa and its lodger Synergus facialis.
The transformations from the larval state are completed within the gall, out of which the imago, or perfect insect, tunnels its way, - usually in autumn, though sometimes, as has been observed of some individuals of Cynips Kollari, after hibernation.
Thus the galls of Cynips and its allies are inhabited by members of other cynipideous genera, as Synergus, Amblynotus and Synophrus; and the pine-cone-like gall of Salix strobiloides, as Walsh has shown, 2 is made by a large species of Cecidomyia, which inhabits the heart of the mass, the numerous smaller cecidomyidous larvae in its outer part being mere inquilines.