On examining the diagram it will be observed that the maximum compressive stresses are parallel to and near to the down stream face of the section, which values are approximately equal to the maximum value of the vertical stress determined by the law of uniformly varying stress divided by the cosine squared of the angle between the vertical and the resultant.

In considering the relative brightnesses of the different spectra, it is therefore sufficient to attend merely to the principal directions, provided that the whole deviation be not so great that its cosine differs considerably from unity.

He introduced the words cosine and cotangent, and he suggested to Henry Briggs, his friend and colleague, the use of the arithmetical complement (see Brigg's Arithmetica Logarithmica, cap. xv.).

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If six films of the same liquid meet in a point the corresponding tetrahedron is a regular tetrahedron, and each film, where it meets the others, has an angle whose cosine is - i.

After Rankine, a French engineer, Bouvier, gave the ratio of the maximum stress in a dam to the maximum vertical stress as 1 to the cosine squared of the angle between the vertical and the resultant which, in dams of the usual form, is about as 13 is to 9.

Further, if polarized light fall at the polarizing angle on a reflecting surface, the intensity of the reflected stream depends upon the azimuth of the plane of incidence, being proportional to the square of the cosine of the angle between this plane and the plane of the polarization.

Consequently, one of the forms suitable for the teeth of wheels is the involute of a circle; and the obliquity of the action of such teeth is the angle whose cosine is the ratio of the radius of their base-circle to that of the pitch-circle of the wheel.