Julius adroitly checkmated the cardinals by convening a general council, which was held in the Lateran.
Both popes attempted to foil the disaffected cardinals by convening councils of their own; but their efforts were doomed to failure.
He persuaded both the League and King George of the necessity of convening a National Assembly for the revision of the Constitution, as the only safe and satisfactory way out of the dangerous situation.
Signed the bull convening the council at Constance, and pledged his word to appear there in person.
The President made it clear that he regarded the conference merely as a step in securing international understanding and good will; he advocated the convening of succeeding conferences as a possible means of securing an international association for the promotion of peace, and he approved the principle of substituting an understanding between the United States, Great Britain, France and Japan regarding Far-Eastern problems, for the existing Anglo-Japanese Treaty.
The first newspaper of the colony, written in Dutch and English, was published in 1824, and its appearance marked an era not only in the literary but in the political history of the colony, since it drew to a crisis the disputes which had arisen between the colonists and the governor, Lord Charles Somerset, who had issued a decree prohibiting all persons from convening or attending public meetings.
He might have hoped that his share in convening the synod would give him a certain right to regulate its proceedings, and that, by the aid of his numerous Italian prelates, he would be able to influence it more or less according to his views.
It is from this time that we find the popes in moments of crisis transporting themselves to Capetian territory, installing their governments and convening their councils there, and from that place of refuge fulminating with impunity against the internal and external foe.