Where it was reinforced by volunteers from Brazil and constitutionalist refugees from England and France.
In 1914, leading Constitutionalist forces in the West, he took Sinaloa, Culiacan and Guadalajara in July, entering the capital Aug.
He fought in the constitutionalist army against the Austrians at Rieti (7th of March 1821), and on the re-establishment of autocracy he was arrested and imprisoned for three months by order of the prince of Canosa, the chief of police, his particular enemy.
Pedro aboard the flagship. In July they reached Portugal and occupied Oporto, but the expected constitutionalist rising did not take place.
In the disturbances of 1820 he adhered to the Constitutionalist party, and fought under General Pepe (q.v.) against the Austrians.
Saldanha, Palmella, the count of Villa Flor (afterwards duke of Terceira), and the other constitutionalist leaders were driven into exile, while scores of their adherents were executed and thousands imprisoned.