Here cross and unite the lines from Berlin to Basel, from Cologne to Wiirzburg and Vienna, from Hamburg and Cassel, and from Dresden and Leipzig to France and Switzerland.
It is the second of the two sects of Cologne (the first being composed very probably of Cathari) that is referred to in the letter addressed in 1146 by Everwin, provost of Steinfeld, to St Bernard (Mabillon, Vet.
Commercially, Cologne is one of the chief centres on the Rhine, and has a very important trade in corn, wine, mineral ores, coals, drugs, dyes, manufactured wares, groceries, leather and hides, timber, porcelain and many other commodities.
Of Cologne and contiguous to the Belgian and Dutch frontiers, to which its municipal boundaries extend.
Der Stadt Kln (5 vols., Cologne, 1863-1880) to 1648, and Frankreich and der Niederrhein (2 vols., ib., 1855, 1856), a history of the city and electorate of Cologne since the Thirty Years' War; R.
In 1500 the diet had divided Germany into six circles, for the maintenance of peace, to which the emperor at the diet of Cologne in 1512 added four others.
Lennep, which was the residence of the counts of Berg from 1226 to 1300, owes the foundation of its prosperity to an influx of Cologne weavers during the 14th century.
According to legend, the ship conveying the relics of the three kings and of Bishop Apollinaris from Milan to Cologne in 1164 could not be got to move away from the spot until the bones of St Apollinaris had been interred .in St Martin's chapel.
When, however, in connexion with the quarrel about the archbishopric of Cologne (1837), political Catholicism raised its head menacingly, Leo turned against it with extreme violence in his open letter (1838) to Goerres, its foremost champion.
About 330 the city was taken by the Franks but was not permanently occupied by them till the 5th century, becoming in 475 the residence of the Frankish king Childeric. It was the seat of a pagus or gau, and counts of Cologne are mentioned in the 9th century.