In Order To Put An End To The Disorders Arising From The Negligence Or Ignorance Of The Pontiffs, Caesar Abolished The Use Of The Lunar Year And The Intercalary Month, And Regulated The Civil Year Entirely By The Sun.
The civil year commences with the ist of September; the ecclesiastical year sometimes with the 21st of March, sometimes with the ist of April.
Some authors, however, among whom are Eusebius, Jerome and the historian Socrates, place its commencement at the 1st of September; these, however, appear to have confounded the Olympic year with the civil year of the Greeks, or the era of the Seleucidae.
The Civil Year Is That Which Is Employed In Chronology, And Varies Among Different Nations, Both In Respect Of The Season At Which It Commences And Of Its Subdivisions.
Others again confound both the year of Rome and the civil year with the Julian year, which in fact became the civil year after the regulation of the calendar by Julius Caesar.
The civil year commenced with the calends of January, but this did not hold a fixed place in the solar year till the time of Julius Caesar(see Calendar).
In the article Calendar (q.v.), that part of chronology is treated which relates to the measurement of time, and the principal methods are explained that have been employed, or are still in use, for adjusting the lunar months of the solar year, as well as the intercalations necessary for regulating the civil year according to the celestial motions.
In the 12th century, however, the custom of beginning the civil year with the day of the Annunciation, or the - 25th of March, began to prevail, and continued to be generally followed from that time till the reformation of the calendar in 1752.
The moons of the civil year are also distinguished by their place in the cycle of sixty; and as the intercalary moons are not reckoned, for the reason before stated, namely, that during one of these lunations the sun enters into no new sign, there are only twelve regular moons in a year, so that the cycle is renewed every five years.