In1844-1859the German Confederation carefully fortified it, and in 1876 the new German Empire added a comprehensive outer girdle of detached forts, culminating in the powerful citadel of Wilhelmsburg.
At Antwerp the old citadel and enceinte were removed.
Of the Temple and probably formed the basis of the citadel built by Simon Maccabaeus, which again was succeeded by the fortress of Antonia, constructed by Herod the Great, and one of the most important positions at the time of the siege by Titus.
The citadel and central bazaar of Kabul were destroyed, and the army finally evacuated Afghanistan, December 1842.
There is a fine monument to Prince Michael (1860-1868) who succeeded in removing the Turkish garrison from the Belgrade citadel and obtaining other Turkish fortresses in Servia by skilful diplomacy.
Among the wines, however, which are well known may be mentioned the Franconian growths, amongst which the celebrated Stein wine, which is grown at the foot of the citadel of the town of Wurzburg, and in the grand duchy of Baden the celebrated growths of Affenthal (red) and Markgrafler.
The townspeople, encouraged and reinforced by this aid from without, at once rose in revolt, and, attacking the Spanish troops, disarmed them and drove them to take refuge in the citadel (28th July).
Calais, formerly a celebrated fortress, is defended by four forts, not of modern construction, by a citadel built in 1560, which overlooks it on the west, and by batteries.
Under Mehemet and his successors all the western part of the city has grown up. The khedive Ismail, in making the straight road from the citadel to the Ezbekia gardens, destroyed many of the finest houses of the old town.
After the siege had continued many days, Khorshld gave orders to cannonade and bombard the town.; and for six days his commands were executed with little interruption, the citadel itself also lying between two fires.