In the epic of Firdousi Khazar is the representative name for all the northern foes of Persia, and legendary invasions long before the Christian era are vaguely attributed to them.
Before the opening of the Christian era Arras was known as Nemetacum, or Nemetocenna, and was the chief town of the Atrebates, from which the word Arras is derived.
Certain it is that mixed castes are found referred to at a comparatively early period; and at the time of Buddha - some five or six centuries before the Christian era - the social organization would seem to have presented an appearance not so very unlike that of modern times.
Even before the Christian era the book existed in two recensions, for we cannot doubt, after reading the Greek translator's preface, that the translator amplified and paraphrased the text before him.
Our knowledge of the Peripatetic school during the first two centuries of the Christian era is very fragmentary; but those of its representatives of whom anything is known confined themselves entirely to commenting upon the different treatises of Aristotle.
The only fragments of Greek manuscripts antedating the Christian era that have been preserved to us have been found in Egypt, where a hospitable climate granted them a term of existence not to be hoped for elsewhere.
On the whole it seems not unlikely that at the beginning of the Christian era the Teutonic peoples of the continent were in a state of transition from cognatic to agnatic organization.
Soon after the Christian era central Asia began to boil over, and at least seven great.
But in reducing Alexandrian dates to the common era it must be observed that Julius Africanus placed the epoch of the Incarnation three years earlier than it is placed in the usual reckoning, so that the initial day of the Christian era fell in the year 5503 of the Alexandrian era.
Then we hear little more of it till at the opening of the Christian era it appears as flourishing Romano-Spanish town with a Latin-speaking population and the rank of municipium.