Map was, as we have seen, frequently in France; Chretien had for patroness Marie, countess of Champagne, step-daughter to Henry II., Map's patron; Map's position was distinctly superior to that of Chretien.
Mares, Lourdes et ses environs (Bordeaux, 1894); Fourcade, L'Apparition de la grotte de Lourdes (Paris, 1862) and L'Apparition consideree au point de vue de fart chretien (Bordeaux, 1862); Boissarie, Lourdes, histoire medicale (Paris, 1891); Bertrin, Hist.
Two manuscripts, indeed, the British Museum and Mons texts, preserve a fragment relating the birth and infancy of the hero, which appears to represent the source at the root alike of Chretien and of the German Parzival, but it is only a fragment, and so far no more of the poem has been discovered.
Duchesne, Origines du culte chretien (Paris, 1898); Joseph Bingham, Origines ecclesiasticae (London, 1834); Adolf Harnack, Dogmengeschichte (Freiburg, 1897).
The LancelotGuenevere romance took form and shape in the artificial atmosphere encouraged by such patronesses of literature as Eleanor of Aquitaine and her daughter Marie, Comtesse de Champagne (for whom Chretien de Troyes wrote his Chevalier de la Charrette), and reflects the low social morality of a time when love between husband and wife was declared impossible.
He is first spoken of in Nennius's History of the Britons (9th century), and at greater length in Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain (12th century), at the end of which the French Breton cycle attained its fullest development in the poems of Chretien de Troyes and others.
Yet Chretien does not claim to have invented the situation.
Of the Perceval-Grail romances the oldest from the point of view of manuscript preservation is the Perceval or Conte del Graal of Chretien de Troyes.
Through the medium of French-speaking Bretons these tales came to the cognizance of Northern French poets, notably Chretien de Troyes, who wove them into romances.
We also possess in one of the so-called Mabinogi a Welsh version of the tale, Peredur, son of Evrawc. This appears to be a free rendering of the adventures found in Chretien combined with incidents drawn from Welsh tradition.