Other black specks have been identified as haematite and ilmenite; gold has also been found; other included minerals recorded are rutile, topaz, quartz, pyrites, apophyllite, and green scales of chlorite (?).
The Russian Altai is composed mainly of mica and chlorite schists and slates, together with beds of limestone, and in the higher horizons Devonian and Carboniferous fossils occur in many places.
Green chlorite is usually also abundant in flakes like those of the mica.
The Eastern Cordillera is composed of gneiss, mica and chlorite schist and other crystalline rocks of ancient date; the Western Cordillera, on the other hand, is formed of porphyritic eruptive rocks of Mesozoic age, together with sedimentary deposits containing Cretaceous fossils.