A final defeat was, however, inflicted upon them by Charles Martel in 734, which secured the supremacy of the Franks in the north, though it was not until the days of Charles the Great (785) that the subjection of the Frisians was completed.
On the continentthe main effect of the viking invasions was to dash the empire of Charles the Great into fragments, and to aid in producing the numberless petty states of feudal Europe.
Anarchy and misery are indeed the main features of that long space of time which elapsed between the death of Charles the Great and the descent of Otto.
For generations the obstinately heathen Saxons had lain, a compact and impenetrable mass, between Scandinavia and the Frank empire, nor were the measures adopted by Charles the Great for the conversion of the Saxons to the true faith very much to the liking of their warlike Danish neighbours on the other side.
In the 9th Alcuin sends to Charles the Great for a copy of the earlier books (Epp. 103, Jaffe); and Dicuil gathers extracts from the pages of Pliny for his own Mensura orbis terrae (c. 825).
And not for them only; for in the school of York, founded by his pupil Archbishop Ecgberht, was trained Alcuin (Ealhwine) the initiator under Charles the Great of the Frankish schools, which did so much for learning on the continent.
The first, as has been already said, was the one true historian who wrote during the dark time of the 7th8th centuries; the second became the pride of the court of Charles the Great for his unrivalled scholarship. At the coming of Augustine England had been a barbarous country; a century and a half later she was more than abreast of the civilization of the rest of Europe.
The respective relations of pope and emperor, ill-defined in the compact between Charles the Great and Leo III., were brought in question, and Che two chief potentates -of Christendom, no longer tacitly concordant, stood against each other in irreconcilable rivalry.
Rodd and is in the History of Charles the Great and Orlando, ascribed to Turpin (London, 1812).