The town lies low, flanked by two chalky eminences, called East and West Hills.
On the island of Andros there is an extremely fine white marl almost resembling a chalky ooze.
It includes chalky limestones, siliceous earths, red clay, and, at the top, a layer of mudstone composed mainly of volcanic dust.
The soil varies greatly according to the district, being in some cases a rich loam, in others a chalky marl, and elsewhere showing a coating of peat.
The Cretaceous system includes the Waipara series, a belt of chalky limestones with some phosphate beds at Clarendon in eastern Otago.
The estuary, which is one of the best roadsteads in Europe and could accommodate the combined fleets of Europe, is a deep and thoroughly sheltered indentation among chalky cliffs, running east and west for nearly 4 m., with a width of threequarters of a mile, narrowing to 930 yds.
The Southdown, from the short close pastures upon the chalky soils of the South Downs in Sussex, was formerly known as the Sussex Down.
Therein two eggs, with white, chalky shells, are commonly laid.
From a careful series of experiments made in the Horticultural Society's Garden at Chiswick, it was found that where the soil is loamy, or light and slightly enriched with decayed vegetable matter, the apple succeeds best on the doucin stock, and the pear on the quince; and where it is chalky it is preferable to graft the apple on the crab, and the pear on the wild pear.
Erectus is a useful forage grass on dry chalky soil.