Col de la Croix (Torre Pellice to Abries), bridle path Petit Mont Cenis (Bramans to the Mont Cenis Plateau), bridle path.
To meet Thiers at the opening of the Mont Cenis tunnel (a refusal not unconnected with offensive language employed at Florence in October 1870 by Thiers during his European tour, and with his instructions to the French minister to remain absent from Victor Emmanuels official entry into Rome) had wounded the amour propre of the French statesman, and had decreased whatever inclination he might otherwise have felt to oppose the French Clerical agitation for the restoration of the temporal power, and for French interference with the Italian Religious Orders Bill.
In the Mont Cenis tunnel a bed of soft granite was encountered that continued to swell with almost irresistible force for some months.
Hence the oldest name for such passes is Mont (still retained in cases of the Mont Cenis and the Monte Moro), for it was many ages before this term was especially applied to the peaks of the Alps, which with a few very rare exceptions (e.g.
Still more recently the main alpine chain has been subjected to the further indignity of having railway lines carried over it or through it-the Brenner and the Pontebba lines being cases of the former, and the Col de Tenda, the Mont Cenis (though the tunnel is really 17 m.
The northern frontier is crossed by the railway from Turin to Ventimiglia by the Col di Tenda, the Mont Cenis line from Turin to Modane (the tunnel is 7 m.
Besides copying the Roman habit of planting military colonies, the First Consul imitated the old conquerors of the world by extending and completing the road-system of his outlying districts, especially at those important passes, the Mont Cenis and Simplon.
Cottian Alps (from the Col de l'Argentiere to the Mont Cenis and westwards to the Col du Galibier).
Not known early save as a purely local route, the Simplon Pass rose into importance when Napoleon caused the carriage road to be built across it between 1800 and 1807, though it suffered a new eclipse on the opening of the Mont Cenis (1871) and St Gotthard railways (1882).