In the western Carpathians the inner zone consists of a foundation of Carboniferous and older rocks, which were folded and denuded before the deposition of the succeeding strata.
To the eastern Carpathians belongs also the range of mountains extending between the Laborcza and the Upper Theiss, called Vihorlat, which attains in the peak of the same name an altitude of 3495 ft.
The Aluta (Alt or Olt) rises not far from the Maros, but takes a southerly direction and pierces the Carpathians at the Roteturm pass, to enter Rumania; its principal tributaries in Transylvania are the Vargyas, the Homorod, the Cibin and the Burzen.
The Poprad river, are composed of four principal groups: the Little Carpathians (also called the Pressburg group) with the highest peak Bradlo (2670 ft.); the White Carpathians or Miava group, with the highest peak Javornik (3325 ft.), and the Zemerka (3445 ft.); the Beskid proper or western Beskid group, which extends from a little west of the Jablunka pass to the river Poprad, with the highest peaks, Beskid (3115 ft.), Smrk (4395 ft.), Lissa Hora (4350 ft.) and Ossus (5106 ft.); and the Magura or Arva Magura group, which extends to the south of Beskid Mountains, and contains the Babia Gora (5650 ft.), the highest peak in the whole western Carpathians.
And the Maanselka heights in the N.W.; the Baltic coast-ridge and spurs of the Carpathians in the W., with a broad depression between the two, occupied by Poland; the Crimean and Caucasian mountains in the S.; and the broad but moderately high swelling of the Ural Mountains in the E.
The Dniester, which, like the Danube, flows into the Black Sea, has its source in the Carpathians in Eastern Galicia, and pursues a very winding course towards the south-east, passing into Russia.
The Carpathians consist of an outer zone of newer beds and an inner zone of older rocks.
But, after passing through the gap between the Moravian mountains, and the Carpathians and entering the Silesian plain,, its valley is wide and shallow and its banks generally low.
The Poles who inhabit the Carpathians are distinguished as Goralians (from gory, mountain), and those of the lower regions as Mazures and Cracoviaks.
Parallel to the Carpathians are the Marsgebirge (1915 ft.) and its continuation, the Steinitzer Wald (1450 ft.).