But on the 6th of February 1778, after the news of the defeat and surrender of Burgoyne had reached Europe, a treaty of alliance and a treaty of amity and commerce between France and the United States were signed at Paris by Franklin, Deane and Lee.
General (Sir) William Howe, who succeeded Gage in the chief command in October, and Generals (Sir) Henry Clinton and John Burgoyne were sent out at once with reinforcements.
In 1777 General John Burgoyne succeeded in taking Ticonderoga, but in the swampy forests southward from Lake Champlain he fought his way against heavy odds, and in the middle of October his campaign culminated disastrously in his surrender at Saratoga.
Under Colonel Barry St Leger to co-operate with Burgoyne by way of the Mohawk Valley.
The victory had an important influence on Burgoyne's campaign (see American War Of Independence), weakening Burgoyne and encouraging the American militia to take the field against him.
In 1777 a British army under Burgoyne capitulated at Saratoga; and early in 1778 France, eager to revenge the disasters of the Seven Years War, formed an alliance with the revolted colonies as free and independent states, and was soon joined by Spain.
Largely upon the representations of Howe, Burgoyne and others, it was determined to shift the field from Boston to New York city, from there to hold the line of the Hudson river in co-operation with a force to move down from Canada under Carleton and Burgoyne, and thus effectually to isolate New England.
The destruction of his squadron on Lake Champlain in October covered the frontier of Canada, and supplied a basis for the march of General Burgoyne in 1777 which ended in the surrender at Saratoga.
In 1652, and in the following year was elected to a fellowship. After residing as tutor first in the family of Sir Roger Burgoyne in Warwickshire and then with the Hon.
His imprisonment after the surrender of Charleston (May 1780) lasted until his exchange with others for General Burgoyne in February 1782.