At Bull Run his brigade was wasted in isolated and disconnected regimental attacks, at Shiloh his division was completely surprised owing to want of precaution; but his bravery and energy were beyond question, and these qualities carried him gradually to the front at the same time as he acquired skill and experience.
See, besides General Grant's article, Cox, The SecondBattle of Bull Run as connected with the Porter Case (Cincinnati, 1882); Lord, A Summary of the Case of F.
In October Lee attempted a third Bull Run campaign on the same lines as the second, but Meade's steadiness foiled him, and he retired to the Rapidan again, where he in turn repulsed Meade's attempt to surprise him (Mine Run, November 26-28, 1863).
It was not until the people was stung by the humiliation of Bull Run that the unorganized enthusiasm of the North settled down into an invincible determination to crush the rebellion at all costs.
In this capacity he took part in the second Bull Run campaign, and his corps displayed the utmost gallantry in the unsuccessful attacks on Bald Hill.
The principal battles were: the first Manassas, or Bull Run (July 21, 1861); those around Richmond (June 26-July 2, 1862); second Manassas (August 29-30); Fredericksburg (December 12, 1862); Mechanicsville (May 2 and 3, 186 3); the Wilderness (May 5 and 6); Spottsylvania (May 8); North Anna and Bethesda church (May 29-30); Cold Harbor (June 3); the battles around Petersburg (June 15, July 30 and November 1, 1864); and Five Forks (April 1) and Appomattox (April 8-9, 1865).
On the 21st of July took place the first battle of Bull Run (q.v.) between McDowell and Beauregard, fought by the raw troops of both sides with an obstinacy that foreboded the desperate battles of subsequent campaigns.
As senior officer he took command on the field, and at Bull Run (Manassas) (q.v.) won the first important Confederate victory.
Its inaction on the first day of the disastrous second battle of Bull Run led to the general's subsequent disgrace; but it made a splendid fight on the second day to save the army from complete rout, and subsequently shared in the Antietam campaign.