San Martin, the military leader of Buenos Aires in the revolt, was the son of a Spanish army officer and a Creole mother, and he is quoted as the example of thousands.
The constitution of 1853 was maintained, but Buenos Aires became the seat of federal government without ceasing to be a provincial capital.
Two days later, the national government occupied, with a strong force of infantry and artillery, the parade ground at Palermo used by the Buenos Aires volunteers for drill purposes.
In 1808 the governor of Montevideo established an independent junta, but after the Buenos Aires declaration of independence in 1810 the Spanish forces were concentrated in Montevideo and held it until expelled in 1814 by the Argentine land and sea forces under General Alvear and Admiral Brown.
The port is connected with Buenos Aires and Montevideo by regular lines of river steamers, which are its only means of trade communication with the outer world, and with the inland town of Villa Rica (95 m.) by a railway worked by an English company.
The Transandine line, designed to open railway communication between Buenos Aires and Valparaiso, was so far completed early in 1909 that on the Argentine side only the summit tunnel, 2 m.
The second settlement made by his expedition at Buenos Aires was even less successful and long-lived than the first.
The combined forces of Buenos Aires and Chile defeated the Spaniards at Chacabuco in 1817, and at Maipu in 1818; and from Chile the victorious general Jose de San Martin led his troops into Peru, where on the 9th of July 1821, he made a triumphal entry into Lima, which had been the chief stronghold of the Spanish power, having from the time of its foundation by Pizarro been the seat of government of a viceroyalty which at one time extended to the river Plate.
The province is traversed by the Tucuman extension of the Buenos Aires and Rosario railway, by a French line from Santa Fe to Tucuman, and by a branch of the Central Northern (Cordoba section) railway.
A general congress was assembled at Buenos Aires on the ist of March 1822, of representatives from all the liberated provinces, and a general amnesty was decreed, though the war was not over until the 9th of December 182 4, when the republican forces gained the final victory of Ayacucho, in the Peruvian border-land.