At the beginning of the 11th century the citizens established a constitution, composed of a general council or legislative assembly and a credenza or executive; and during the next century they were engaged in wars with Venice and Vicenza for the right of water-way on the Bacchiglione and the Brenta - so that, on the one hand, the city grew in power and selfreliance, while, on the other, the great families of Camposampiero, D'Este and Da Romano began to emerge and to divide the Paduan district between them.
He opened his attack on Dec. z i by a push on each wing of his front, from the Brenta valley and Monte Pertica against Col della Berretta, and against both sides of the Solarolo salient.
Of the Brenta ran considerably farther south.
Corps from Pecori-Giraldi, and it had been gradually withdrawn from its old positions to hold a line that ran from near San Marino in the Brenta gorge nearly due E.
Bocca di Brenta (Pinzolo or Campiglio to Molveno), snow.
Army now held the line from the Brenta to the Piave, and the short stretch of the river as far as the Montello.
These works had been ordered with the double object of strengthening the defences of the Val Brenta against an attack from the N., and of providing against the possibility of a retreat to the Piave, which Cadorna had been compelled to consider once before, in May 1916.
Krauss, who now had Krobatin's troops under his orders, and subsequently drew reinforcements from Stein's group, wished to organize a double drive through the Brenta and Piave gorges, and reach the plain by the tactics he had successfully employed in the Plezzo basin.
Conrad and Boroevic were making no headway, but a more dangerous attack was being conducted by Krauss, between the Brenta and the Piave.
His original intention, apparently, had been to extend it to the north of the Brenta valley, though the main drive was to be to the south.