The intestine is provided with numerous branched caeca in Aphrodite.
In Stauropteris, a genus showing some affinity with Zygopteris, the branched rachis of the fertile frond terminates in fine branchlets, each bearing a single, spherical sporangium, without any differentiated annulus (fig.
The plant has a well-developed main root (tap-root) and a single or branched leafy stem which is provided with a means of secondary increase in thickness.
The mass of the body consists of richly branched stellate cells - the mesenchyma - and imbedded in this plasmic tissue are the nervous, excretory, muscular and generative organs.
The dorsoventral and the parapodial muscles are much developed, whilst the coelom is reduced mostly to branched spaces in which the genital products ripen, Full-grown myzostomids are hermaphrodite.
The simple leaves, which are of small size and do not possess a ligule, are arranged spirally around the branched stem in the majority of the species.
A common phenomenon in cycads is the production of roots which grow upwards (apogeotropic), and appear as coralline branched structures above the level of the ground; some of the cortical cells of these roots are hypertrophied, and contain numerous filaments of blue-green Algae (Nostocaceae), which live as endoparasites in the cell-cavities.
Veitchii, a more recent introduction (1868) from Japan, has smaller leaves very variable in shape; it clings readily to stone or brick work by means of suckers at the ends of the branched tendrils.
This deposition of bony matter progresses very rapidly, and although in young deer and the adults of some species the resulting antler merely forms a simple spike, or a single fork, in full-grown individuals of the majority it assumes a more or less complexly branched structure.
They occasionally exhibit striation and originate from large branched cells, the nucleus and unmodified part of which form conspicuous elements.