Among other educational institutions are a conservatory of music, school of fine arts, normal school, a national library with upwards of 260,000 volumes and a large number of manuscripts, maps, medals and coins, the national observatory on Castle Hill, the national museum now domiciled in the Sao Christovao palace in the midst of a pretty park, a zoological garden in the suburb of Villa Isabel, and the famous Botanical Garden founded by Dom Joao VI.
In 1811, and the endowments were diverted four years later to the support of an athenaeum, and afterwards of a gymnasium, with which a physiological cabinet and a botanical garden are connected.
Besides a good picture gallery in the Ratshof, and the 13thcentury church of St John, Yuriev possesses a university, with an observatory, an art museum, a botanical garden and a library of 250,000 volumes, which are housed in a restored portion of the cathedral, burned down in 1624.
The use of tramways for the transportation of passengers in cities dates from 1868, when the first section of the Botanical Garden line of Rio de Janeiro was opened to traffic. The line was completed with its surplus earnings and continued under the control of the American company which built it until 1882, when it was sold to a Brazilian company.
The public parks and gardens are numerous and include the Botanical Garden with its famous avenue of royal palms (Oreodoxa regia); the Passeio Publico (dating from 1783), a small garden on the water-front facing the harbour entrance; the Jardim d'Acclamacao, forming part of the Praca da Republica (once known as the Campo de Sant' Anna) with its artistic walks and masses of shrubbery; the Praca Tiradentes (the old Largo do Rocio, afterwards rechristened Praca da Constituicao) with its magnificent equestrian statue of Dom Pedro I.
The herbarium at Melbourne, Australia, under Baron Muller, attained large proportions; and that of the Botanical Garden of Calcutta is noteworthy as the repository of numerous specimens described by writers on Indian botany.
The extensive gardens which occupy the hillside behind the palace are adorned with fountains and cascades; the botanical garden contains manytrees from northern climates.
The botanical garden (1874) contains an observatory with a statue of Tycho Brahe, and the chemical laboratory, mineralogical museum, polytechnic academy (1829) and communal hospital adjoin it.
Even in the best equipped botanical garden it is impossible to have, at one and the same time, more than a very small percentage of the representatives of the flora of any given region or of any large group of plants.
Connected with it are a library of 150,000 volumes and Boo MSS., a chemical laboratory, a zoological museum, a gynaecological institute, an ophthalmological school, a botanical garden and at Eldena (a seaside resort on the Baltic) an agricultural school.