For maps of the Balkan Peninsula we are still largely indebted to the rapid surveys carried on by Austrian and Russian officers.
The Austrian map of central Europe embraces the whole of the Balkan Peninsula on a scale of 1:200,000; the Russian surveys (1877-1879) are embodied in a map of the eastern part of the Balkan on a scale 1: 126,000, and a map of Bulgaria and southern Rumelia, on a scale 1: 200,000, both published in 1883.
In the Balkan Peninsula a slight change of attitude took place.
Under Turkish rule the city was for nearly four centuries the residence of the beylerbey or governor-general of the whole Balkan Peninsula except Bosnia and the Morea.
Broadly speaking, the Balkan Peninsula may be divided into four areas which geologically are distinct.
In Dalmatia the Venetians III were too strong for her; but she helped materially to break up the Byzantine rule in the Balkan peninsula by assisting Stephen Nemanya to establish an independent Servian kingdom, originally under nominal Hungarian suzerainty.
The Turks continued their progress; in 1363 they captured Philippopolis, and in 1365 they entered Adrianople; the whole Balkan peninsula was threatened, and even Hungary itself seemed doomed.
Seeing the danger which menaced the disorganized Byzantine empire from the Turks, he thought the best plan to prevent the Turkish invasion of the Balkan Peninsula would be to replace that empire by a SerboGreek empire.
Beyond this belt there appear in the north-west Mesozoic limestones, such as occupy so extensive an area in the north-west of the Balkan Peninsula generally, and the valleys opening in that quarter to the Drina have the same desolate aspect as belongs to these rocks in the rest of that region.
His friendliness for Russia did not, however, prevent him from strengthening the position of Austria as against Russia in the Balkan Peninsula by the establishment of a closer political and commercial understanding with Servia and Rumania.