Two court-singers, Sallama and Ilababa, exercised great influence, tempered only by the austerity of manners that prevailed in Syria.
The life was to be self-denying and hard, but not one of any great austerity (for details see Benedict Of Nursia; and E.
In 1842 he withdrew to Littlemore, and lived there under monastic conditions with a small band of followers, their life being one of great physical austerity as well as of anxiety and suspense.
The general tendency of these Benedictine offshoots was in the direction of greater austerity of life than was practised by the Black Monks or contemplated by St Benedict's Rule - some of them were semi-eremitical; the most important by far were the Cistercians, whose ground-idea was to reproduce exactly the life of St Benedict's own monastery.
His pride and austerity made him unpopular at court and he left the country in 1642, settling at last in Padua, where he died in 1646, impoverished by the sequestrations of the parliament, whose forces had taken and retaken his castle of Arundel.
In St Theresa (1515-1582) and John of the Cross Other the counter-reformation can boast of saints second Forms of to none in the calendar for the austerity of their Mysticism.
Some of these congregations went in the matter of austerity beyond the original idea of the institute; and so in the 16th century there arose in Spain, Italy and France, Discalced or Barefooted Hermits of St Augustine, who provided in each province one house wherein a strictly eremitical life might be led by such as desired it.
In the Constituent Assembly his oratorical gifts, legal knowledge and austerity of life gave him much influence.
He marks a reaction of the genuine Hellenic spirit against the narrow austerity of the first Stoics.
Day after day he was tortured, and in his agony, with a frame weakened by constant austerity and the mental strain of the past months, he made every admission demanded by his tormentors.