Robert von Puttkammer, after a short course of law, began his official career in 1850 as Auskultator in the courts at Danzig, but in 1852 entered the civil service, receiving after his promotion to the rank of Assessor in 1854 a post in the railway department of the ministry for trade and industry.
Bartolus left behind him a great reputation, and many writers have sought to explain the fact by attributing to him the introduction of the dialectical method of teaching law; but this method had been employed by Odofredus, a pupil of Accursius, in the previous century, and the successors of Odofredus had abused it to an extent which has rendered their writings in many instances unprofitable to read, the subject matter being overlaid with dialectical forms. It was the merit of Bartolus, on the other hand, that he employed the dialectical method with advantage as a teacher, and discountenanced the abuse of it; but his great reputation was more probably owing to the circumstance that he revived the exegetical system of teaching law (which had been neglected since the ascendancy of Accursius) in a spirit which gave it new life, whilst he imparted to his teaching a practical interest, from the judicial experience which he had acquired while acting as assessor to the courts at Todi and at Pisa before he undertook the duties of a professorial chair.
He practised as an ecclesiastical lawyer, was an assessor at the trial of Oldcastle, and in 1415 was made dean of the Court of Arches.
He was present at the Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520, and assisted Wolsey as assessor during the secret inquiry into the validity of Henry's marriage with Catherine in 1527.
In the county courts the judge may, if he thinks fit, on the application of either party, call in as assessor one or more persons of skill and experience as to the matters in dispute (County Courts Act 1888, s.
He left Stockholm in 1770 and took up his residence at Upsala, where through the agency of Johann Gottlieb Gahn (1745-1818), assessor of mines at Fahlun, he made the personal acquaintance of Bergman.
This revised code enabled the bishop to appoint a learned and discreet layman to act as his chancellor, to advise him in legal matters and be his assessor at diocesan synods.
The acting justice sits normally alone to hear causes in his canton of the peace (uchastok), but, at the request of both parties to a suit, he may call in an honorary justice as assessor or substitute.
The trustees are elected for a term of three years, the clerk and assessor for two years.
He had to deal with the St George's-in-the-East riots in 1859, and the troubles at St Alban's, Holborn, in their earlier stages (1867); he took part as assessor in the Privy Council judgment in the Ridsdale case (1877); he was more closely concerned than any other bishop with the agitation against confession in 1858, and again in 1877.