Of a later date, though of no great pretensions to architectural merit, are the Petri-kirche with a lofty spire, the Franzosische-kirche and the Neue-kirche with dome-capped towers, on the Gendarmen-markt, and the round, Roman Catholic St Hedwigs - kirche behind the Opera-house.
Rivoira, in the book cited below, shows that many of the characteristic architectural details can be traced back to a classical and in particular a Roman origin, and were not derived from the East, e.g.
Ruskin's architectural studies, of which The Seven Lamps was the first fruit, turned him from Turner and Modern Painters.
If an aperture for ingress and egress, for purposes of feeding, were left in the wall of such a chamber, there would arise in a rudimentary form what is known as the tubular nest or web; and the next important step was possibly the adoption of such a nest as a permanent abode for the spider., Some spiders, like the Drassidae and Salticidae, have not advanced beyond this stage in architectural industry; but next to the cocoon this simple tubular retreat - whether spun in a crevice or burrow or simply attached to the lower side of a stone - is the most constant feature to be observed in the spinning habits of spiders.
Unfortunately only the foundation and a few Doric capitals and other architectural fragments remain; they were coated with stucco which was brightly painted.
The great line of public offices along the esplanade and facing Back Bay, which are in the Gothic style mixed with Saracenic, are not individually distinguished for architectural merit, but they have a cumulative effect of great dignity.
The Paulskirche, the principal Evangelical (Lutheran) church, built between 1786 and 1833, is a red sandstone edifice of no architectural pretensions, but interesting as the seat of the national parliament of 1848-1849.
Mahommedan art is also largely architectural and has affected Literature, art, science.
The Golden Temple is so called on account of its copper dome, covered with gold foil, which shines brilliantly in the rays of the Indian sun, and is reflected back from the waters of the lake; but the building as a whole is too squat to have much architectural merit apart from its ornamentation.
Mosaic is the essential decoration of the church, and the architectural details are subordinated to the colour scheme.