The southern boundary of Caucasia is in part coincident with the river Aras (Araxes), in part purely conventional and political.
Situated in the direction of Atropatene, and consequently Airyanem Vaejo is for the most part identified with the district of Arran on the river Aras (Araxes), close by the north-western frontier of Media.
This line of heights separates the basins of the Chorokh and the Rion (Black Sea) from those of the Aras and the Kura (Caspian Sea).
Side of the same sea it zigzags from the Black Sea to the Caspian, utilizing the river Aras (Araxes) for part of the distance.
By the river Aras (Araxes), while it has the Caspian Sea, Gilan and Khamseh (Zenjan) on the E., Kurdistan on the S., and Asiatic Turkey on the W.
Remains of the sovereign were exposed to insult, the army was disturbed, the recently captured fort on the left bank of the Aras was abandoned; but the wisdom and resolution of the minister, Hajji Ibrahim, and of Mirza Mahommed Khan Kajar secured order and acceptance of the duly appointed heir.