In 1789 he was elected a member of the states-general by the clergy of the bailliage of Peronne, and from the first proved to be the most able and persevering defender of the ancien regime, although he had drawn up the greater part of the cahier of the clergy of Peronne, which contained a considerable programme of reform.
His SOD, Edouard Constant Biot (1803-1850), after amassing a competence from railway engineering, turned to the study of Chinese subjects, and published Causes de l'abolition de l'esclavage ancien en occident (1840); Dictionnaire des noms anciens et modernes des villes et des arrondissements compris dans l'empire chinois (1842); Essai sur l'histoire de l'instruction publique en Chine et de la corporation des lettres (1847); Memoire sur les colonies militaires et agricoles des chinois (1850).
Yanoski, De l'abolition de l'esclavage ancien au moyen age et de sa transformation en servitude de la glebe (Wallon and Yanoski had jointly composed a memoir to compete for a prize offered by the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences in 1837; Wallon's portion of the memoir became the foundation of his Histoire de l'esclavage dans l'antiquite above mentioned; Yanoski's part, the expansion of which was prevented by his early death, was posthumously published in 1860; it is no more than a slight sketch); Benjamin Gubrard, Prolegomenes au Polyptyque d'Irminon (1844); Fustel de Coulanges, Histoire des institutions politiques de l'ancienne France (2nd ed., 1877), and Recherches sur quelques problemes d'histoire (1885) (the latter work contains an admirable discussion of the whole subject of the colonatus, founded throughout on the original texts); Stubbs, Constitutional History of England (3 vols., 1874-1878).
The intendants of provinces of the ancien regime were taken as a model, and there is a great resemblance between their respective functions.
This new and obedient legislature, to which only nineteen liberals were returned, made itself into a septennial parliament, thus providing time, it was thought, to restore some part of the ancien regime.
These with a host of lesser dignities built up the imperial hierarchy and enabled the court quickly to develop on the lines of the old monarchy, so far as rules of etiquette and self-conscious efforts could reproduce the courtly graces of the ancien regime.
Chevalier,, Le Mexique ancien et moderne (Paris, 1886); A.
As a free-thinking republican, his prejudices often biassed his judgment on the political and religious history of the ancien regime.
These Napoleonic countships, increased under subsequent reigns, have produced a plentiful crop of titles of little social significance, and have tended to lower the status of the counts deriving from the ancien regime.
Les Arts (1902); Gazette des beaux-arts (1859), monthly, with Chronique des arts; Revue de fart ancien et moderne (1897) monthly; L'Art decoratif, monthly, Art et decoration, monthly; L'Art pour tous, monthly; La Decoration, monthly; L'Architecture- journal of the Soc. centrale des Architectes francais, weekly; L'Art (1875) is no longer published.