Such a reaction can only take place if the addition of the alkyl group takes place on the nitrogen atom of the isonitrile, from which it follows that the nitrogen atom must be trivalent and consequently the carbon atom divalent.
On treatment with zinc and alkyl iodides or with zinc alkyls they are converted into esters of hydroxy-dialkyl acetic acids.
Or by heating the amide salts of the alkyl dithio-carbaminic acids, viz., NR CS S(NH 3 R).
In fact, the analogy between the alkyl groups and metallic elements forms a convenient basis from which to consider many derivatives.
The thiazoles are somewhat basic in character, and combine with the alkyl iodides to form thiazolium iodides.
The organic derivatives of silicon resemble the corresponding carbon compounds except in so far that the silicon atom is not capable of combining with itself to form a complex chain in the same manner as the carbon atom, the limit at present being a chain of three silicon atoms. Many of the earlier-known silicon alkyl compounds were isolated by Friedel and Crafts and by Ladenburg, the method adopted consisting in the interaction of the zinc alkyl compounds with silicon halides or esters of silicic acids.
These salts are like those of tin; and the resemblance to this metal is clearly enhanced by the study of the alkyl compounds.
They add on alkyl iodides readily, forming alkyl azonium salts.
Aniline combines directly with alkyl iodides to form secondary and tertiary amines; boiled with carbon disulphide it gives sulphocarbanilide (diphenyl thio-urea), CS(NHC 6 H 5) 2, which may be decomposed into phenyl mustard-oil, C 6 H 5 CNS, and triphenyl guanidine, C 6 H 5 N: C(NHC6H5)2.
The mixed tertiary amines are produced by the action of alkyl halides on the primary amines.