Despite his victorious advance, the taking of Smolensk, the victory on the Moskwa, and the entry into Moscow, he was vanquished by Russian patriotism and religious fervour, by the country and the climate, and by Alexanders refusal to make terms. After this came the lamentable retreat, while all Europe was concentrating against him.
Schreiber, Studien fiber das Bildnis Alexanders d.
Politik Alexanders des Grossen in Klio, v.
During these years he was occupied with classical antiquity; he published a translation of Aeschylus and a paraphrase of Aristophanes, but the work by which he made himself known as a historian was his Geschichte Alexanders des Grossen (Berlin, 1833, and other editions), a book which still remains probably the best work on the subject.
Miildener (Leipzig, 1863); an Icelandic prose version (c. 1250) of the same, Alexanders Saga, by C. R.
Julius II., his bitterest enemy and powerful successor, continued Alexanders policy, but no longer in the interest of his own relatives.
The Plolemaic Period.On the division of Alexanders dominions in 32!3 B.C., Egypt fell to Ptolemy the son of Lagus, the founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty (see PTOLEMIES).
The statement in Noldekes Geschichte des Artachlir Edpakdn, after Alexanders death there were in Iran 240 local governors), but the administrative divisions, hukumat, or kalamro, with governors appointed by the Crown and responsible to it for the revenues, have been under fifty for sixty-five years or more.
Reuter's Geschichte Alexanders III.
Bernouilli, Die erhaltenen Darstellungen Alexanders d.