The origin of Maronism has been much obscured by the efforts of learned Maronites like Yusuf as-Simani (Assemanus), Vatican librarian under Clement XII., Faustus Nairon, Gabriel Sionita and Abraham Ecchellensis to clear its history from all taint of heresy.
The citadel, built by Yusuf Adil Shah, a mile in circuit, is of great strength, well built of the most massive materials, and encompassed by a ditch loo yds.
A proposition by the cadi Abu Yusuf to Harun al-Rashid to renew it had not been adopted.
When the peril of appealing to Yusuf was put before him at durbar by his son, he acknowledged the danger, but added that he did not wish to be cursed throughout Islam as the cause of the loss of Spain and that, if choose he must, he thought it better to lead camels in Africa than to tend pigs in Castile.
Moawiya, a great-grandson of Ali's brother Ja t far, put himself at the head of a band of Shiites and maulas, made himself master of Kufa and marched upon Hira, where, since Yusuf b.
In the 10th century Jacob al-Qirqisani wrote his Kitab al-anwar, on law, Solomon ben Yeruham (against Seadiah) and Yefet ben 'Ali wrote exegetical works; in the 11th century Abu'l-faraj Furgan, exegesis, and Yusuf al-Basir against Samuel ben Hophni.
But the Ottomans did not stop here: in their romantic poems they chose as subjects the favourite themes of their Persian masters, such as Leyli and Mejnun, Khusrev and Shiriri, Yusuf and Zuleykha, and so on; they constantly allude to Persian heroes whose stories occur in the Shah-Nama and other storehouses of Iranian legendary lore; and they wrote their poems in Persian metres and in Persian forms. The mesnevi, the kasida and the ghazel - all of them, so far at least as the Ottomans are concerned, Persian - were the favourite'verse-forms of the old poets.
The town was occupied by the French for a few months in 1830 and reoccupied in 1832, when Captains Armandy and Yusuf with a small force of marines seized the Kasbah and held it for some months until help arrived.
The fact of his having devoted his life and talents to chronicling the renown of fire-worshipping Persians was, however, somewhat of a crime in the orthodox caliph's eyes; in order therefore to recover his prestige, Firdousi composed another poem of 9000 couplets on the theme borrowed from the Koran of the loves of Joseph and Potiphar's wife - Yusuf and Zuleikha (edited by H.
Baden-Powell, The Indian Village Community (1896); Abdullah Yusuf Ali, Life and Labour of the People of India (1907); Theodore Morison, Industrial Organization of an Indian Province (1906); Professor Wyndham Dunstan, Coal Resources of India (Society of Arts, 1902); Sir George Watt, Dictionary of Economic Products of India (1908); Sir George Birdwood, Industrial Arts of India (1880); R.