In tonguing the leaves are cut off the portion which has to be brought under ground, and a tongue or slit is then cut from below upwards close beyond a joint, of such length that, when the cut part of the layer is pegged an inch or two (or in larger woody subjects 3 or 4 in.) below the surface, the elevation of the point of the shoot to an upright position may open the incision, and thus set it free, so that it may be surrounded by earth to induce it to form roots.
Beetles and larvae are frequently carnivorous in habit, hunting for small insects under stones, or pursuing the soft-skinned grubs of beetles and flies that bore in woody stems or succulent roots.
Usually it occurs in compact beds of alternating bright and dark bands in which impressions of leaves, woody fibre and other vegetable remains are commonly found.
As the cone grows in size and becomes woody the lower half of the cone-scale, which we may call the carpellary scale, may remain small, and is so far outgrown by the upper half (seminiferous scale) that it is hardly recognizable in the mature cone.
The leaves of the cypresses are scale-like, overlapping and generally in four rows; the female catkins are roundish, and fewer than the male; the cones consist of from six to ten peltate woody scales, which end in a curved point, and open when the seeds are ripe; the seeds are numerous and winged.
The gardener aims usually at producing stout, robust, short-jointed stems, instead of long lanky growths defective in woody tissue.
The older is that the water travels in the woody cell-walls of the vascular bundles, mainly under the action of the forces of root pressure and transpiration, and that the cavities of the vessels contain only air.
They differ from all the forms already noticed in being shrubby and epiphytal in habit, and in having the branches compressed and dilated so as to resemble thick fleshy leaves, with a strong median axis and rounded woody base.
In the ripe seed the integument assumes the form of a fleshy envelope, succeeded internally by a hard woody shell, internal to which is a thin papery membrane - the apical portion of the nucellus - which is easily dissected out as a conical cap covering the apex of the endosperm.
Irregularity of cambium occurs in various families of woody dicotyledonous plants, mostly among the woody climbers, known as lianes, characteristic of tropical and sub-tropical forests.