The strong changes of temperature with the seasons are indicated also by the distribution of summer maxima and winter minima; summer temperatures above 112 are known in the south-western deserts, and temperatures of 100 are sometimes carried far northward on the Great Plains by the hot winds nearly to the Canadian boundary; while in winter, temperatures of 40 occur along the mid-northern boundary and freezing winds sometimes sweep down to the border of the Gulf of Mexico.
Shanghai lies low, and, though the early winter is enjoyable, snow and ice being occasionally seen, the summer months are excessively hot.
It prefers clear streams flowing over a gravelly bottom, and deep, still water, keeping close to the bottom in winter but disporting itself near the surface in the sunshine of summer.
The Nafud sands, too, are tufted in many places with bushes or small trees, and after the winter rains they produce excellent pasture.
Another route worked more cheaply than formerly is that by river, from the centre of the winter wheat belt, say at St Louis, to New Orleans, and thence by steamer to Liverpool.
During the trying winter of 1854-55, the suffering he was compelled to witness, the censures, in great part unjust, which he had to endure and all the manifold anxieties of the siege seriously undermined his health, and although he found a friend and ardent supporter in his new French colleague, General Pelissier (q.v.), disappointment at the failure of the assault of the 18th of June 1855 finally broke his spirit, and very shortly afterwards, on the 28th of June 1855, he died of dysentery.
The climate throughout Rajputana is very dry and hot during the summer; while in the winter it is much colder in the north than in the lower districts, with hard frost and ice on the Bikanir borders.
Along the shore, and bordered by a firm sandy beach, frequented by bathers, and the winter town, farther inland, consisting of numerous villas scattered amongst the pines.
A mile to the south is Santa Margherita Ligure (pop. 7051), another winter resort, with a large 26th-century church.
The best fur is obtained by killing animals when the winter is at its height and the colder the season the better its quality and colour.