He also wrote Notes on the Mineralogy, Government and Condition of the British West India Islands (1851), and a Narrative of Services in the Liberation of Chili, Peru and Brazil (1858).
No diplomatic questions of the first magnitude arose during his service as secretary of state, but the settlement of long-standing claims against France was prepared for, and trade with the British West India colonies was opened.
When early in the 16th century the Spaniards found their way from the West India Islands to this part of the mainland of America, they discovered not rude and simple tribes like the islanders of the Antilles, but nations with armies, official administrators, courts of justice, high agriculture and mechanical arts, and, what struck the white men especially, stone buildings whose architecture and sculpture were often of dimensions and elaborateness to astonish the builders and sculptors of Europe.
In 1665 Grenada passed into the hands of the French West India Company, and was administered by it until its dissolution in 1674, when the island passed to the French Crown.
During Peter Stuyvesant's governorship there was little toleration of other denominations, but the West India Company reversed his intolerant proclamations against Lutherans and Quakers.
Their earliest settlements were at Manhattan, Wallabout and Fort Orange (now Albany), where the West India Company formally established the Reformed Church of Holland.
Greenwich is connected with Poplar on the north shore by the Greenwich tunnel (1902), for foot-passengers, to the Isle of Dogs (Cubitt Town), and by the Blackwall Tunnel (1897) for street traffic, crossing to a point between the East and West India Docks (see Poplar).
HENRY EDWARD MANNING (1808-1892), English Roman Catholic cardinal, was born at Totteridge, Hertfordshire, on the 15th of July 1808, 1 being the third and youngest son of William Manning, a West India merchant, who was a director of the Bank of England and governor, 1812-1813, and who sat in Parliament for some thirty years, representing in the Tory interest Plympton Earle, Lymington, Evesham, and Penryn consecutively.
Here were Hausas from the Niger and the Gold Coast, coloured men from the West India regiments, zaptiehs from Cyprus, Chinamen from Hong Kong, and Dyaks - now civilized into military police - from British North Borneo.
On the expiration of the charter of the New Netherland Company (1618) the StatesGeneral refused to grant a renewal, and only private ventures were authorized until 1621, when the West India Company was chartered for a term of twenty-four years; to this company was given a monopoly of Dutch trade with the whole American coast from Newfoundland to the Straits of Magellan.