The state sank wells and built and maintained tanks from which brine was delivered to lessees.
The state came under British management, and the administration was improved, the revenue increased, a system of irrigation developed, new tanks and wells constructed and an excellent system of roads and public buildings organized.
Where no running water is available for irrigation, water is often obtained from wells by means of waterwheels (nones) of simple construction.
Where the strata are not uniformly porous, they may resist the passage of water from the direction of the sea or they may assist it; and round the whole coast of England, in the Magnesian limestone to the northeast, in the Chalk and Greensand to the east and south, and in the New Red Sandstone to the west, the number of wells which have been abandoned as sources of potable supply, owing to the percolation of sea water, is very great.
Immediately before the Civil War, petroleum was discovered in shallow wells near Parkersburg, and there was a great rush of prospectors and speculators to the Little Kanawha Valley.
Chalybeate springs were discovered at Hampstead in the 17th century, and early in the 18th rivalled those of Tunbridge Wells and Epsom.
The most conspicuous example of these is the Trebinjcica, which disappears in two swallow-holes in Popovopolye, and after making its way by a subterranean passage through a range of mountains, wells up in the mighty source of Ombla near Ragusa, and hurries in undiminished volume to the Adriatic. The Narenta, or Neretva, is the one large river of Herzegovina which flows above ground throughout its length.
William George Crosby Anson Peaslee Morrill Samuel Wells .
By the close of 1861 wells had been drilled from which 2000 to 3000 barrels flowed in a day without pumping, and the state's yearly output continued to increase until 1891, when it amounted to 31,424,206 barrels.
Brine wells have been mentioned above; the salt industry is still carried on in Mason county, and in 1908 145,157 bbls.