In most cases we have only the evidence of sterile fronds, and this is necessarily unsatisfactory; but the occurrence of numerous stems and fertile shoots demonstrates the wealth of Cycadean plants in many parts of the world, more particularly during the Jurassic and Wealden periods.
It was at the close of the Wealden period that a second evolutionary wave swept over the vegetation of the world.
Cycadean stems have been found also in the uppermost Jurassic, Wealden and Lower Cretaceous rocks of England, India and other parts of the world.
Representatives of the Ginkgoales constitute characteristic members of the later Triassic floras, and these, with other types, carry us on without any break in continuity to the Rhaetic floras of Scania, Germany, Asia, Chile, Tonkin and Honduras (Map A, VIII.), and to the Jurassic and Wealden floras of many regions in both the north and south hemispheres.
The Wealden and Jurassic genus, Onychiopsis of England, Portugal, Belgium, Germany, Japan, South Afr i ca and Australia, bears a close resemblance to the recent Onychium (Cryptogamme).
Wanting Danian Upper Chalk Senonian Middle Chalk Turonian Lower Chalk Cenomanian Upper Green-sand Gault Albian Aptian Lower Green-sand Valenginian Urgonian Wealden Neocomian In the continental classification the deposits from the Gault downwards are grouped as Lower Cretaceous; but in Great Britain there is a strong break below the Gault and 'none above; and the Gault is therefore classed as Upper Cretaceous.
To return to the northern hemisphere, it is clear that the Wealden flora, as represented by plants recorded from England, France, Belgium, Portugal, Russia, Germany and other European regions, as also from Japan and elsewhere, carries on, with minor differences, the facies of the older Jurassic floras.
The Chloritic Marl in the Wealden district furnishes much phosphatic material, which has been extensively worked at Froyle.
There can be little doubt that the majority of the Cycadean fronds of Jurassic and Wealden age, which are nearly always found detached from the rest of the plant, were borne on stems of the Bennettites type.
The lower members of the Cretaceous series include an important fresh-water formation (sandstones and clays), which extends from the Cantabrian coast through the provinces of Santander, Burgos, Soria and Logrono, and is supposed to represent the English Wealden series.